Retinyl palmitate – Vitamin A
SUPERFOOD multipurpose vitamin face gel contains retinyl palmitate. Retinyl palmitate is a retinoid of the retinyl ester group, which accounts for more than 70% of the vitamin A found in human skin. Retinyl palmitate is converted into retinol which again through different intermediates are converted into the active form of vitamin a. Some retinoids including the active form can be highly irritating for the skin. By using precursors of active vitamin a this side effect can be significantly reduced. Retinoids can diffuse into skincells in the epidermis, where it is transported into the cell nucleus where it exerts it`s effects by modulating expression of genes involved in the differentiation and proliferation av skin cells. The actions include prevention of activation of enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase) involved in the breakdown of collagen, oxidative stress, and regeneration of the extracellular matrix. Retinoids also inhibit keratinocyte differentiation and stimulate epidermal hyperplasia.
Retinoids also exert some effects other than those mediated through modulation of gene expression. Retinoid molecules contain a side chain that appears to absorb UV light. Animal studies have shown retinyl palmitate to be effective in preventing UVB-induced apoptosis and DNA photodamage.